Physical Geography 101
Lab Practical I
Practice Problems


Directions

Enter all decimal values less than one with a zero before the decimal - example 0.53, 0.32

Scientific Method and Philosophy of Science

1. List the 8 steps of the Scientific Method.

2. What is Science?

3. What is Technology?

4. What is the basis of Religion?

5. When is a theory not scientific?

6. Under what circumstances is a theory abandoned or discarded?

7. What are the three common mistakes made while applying the scientific method?

8. What is an hypothesis?

9. What is a theory or law?

Metric System Conversions

Convert the following values.
Report Problem 10 to the nearest hundredth (two decimal places).
Report Problems 11-13 to the nearest whole number.
10. 7 cm = m
11. 1,500 cm = mm
12. 1 kilometer = meter
13. 1 meter = centimeters

Complete the following English-English:
Report to the nearest whole number.
14. 1 foot = inches
15. 1 mile = feet

Convert English to Metric units.
Enter all values to the nearest hundredth (two decimal places)
16. 10 inches = cm
17. 6 ft = m

Convert Metric to English units.
Enter all values to the nearest hundredth (two decimal places)
18. 10 cm = inches
19. 9.5 m = feet

Write the following using scientific notation. Use the "E" format for "x10": example 3.463 E -24 (the space before and after the E is important)
20. 7,663,000,000 =
21. 0.000000000000007435 =

Write the following using standard notation. For Problem 23, use as many decimal places as are needed.
22. 5.543 x 103 =
23. 5.543 x 10-7 =
24. (8 x 106)(9.2 x 105) =

Longitude and Latitude

Using an atlas, determine the longitude and latitude to the nearest degree of the cities.

25. Montevideo, Uruguay: Longitude = , Latitude =

26. Stockholm, Sweden: Longitude = , Latitude =

27. Cairo, Egypt: Longitude = , Latitude =

28. Largest city near (city name only): Longitude = 116°E, Latitude = 32°S
Location Name:

29. The large body of water located at Longitude = 60°E, Latitude = 44°N
Location Name:

Identify the error or errors that have been made in each of the following Longitude and Latitude locations. Also, describe why it is wrong.
30. 182° 08' 21" E Longitude, 41° 32' 51" W Latitude

Time Zones

Determine the Time Zone for each of the following locations. Give your answer in terms of "+" or "-" hours from UTC time.
31. Argentina:
32. Afghanistan:
33. How many standard time zones are there on the entire globe?
34. How many time zones actually exist?
35. How many degrees of Longitude does each standard time zone span?

Map Projections

36. Identify the basic type of map projection for each of the following examples - cylindric, pseudocylindric, conic, pseudoconic, polyconic, azimuthal, pseudoazimuthal or retroazimuthal.

Map Projection identification exercise

Map projection identification exercise

Identify the specific type of map projection for the maps at the following links.
37. Map of Africa: Projection

38. Map of Colombia: Projection

Insolation

Correctly identify the time of year and calendar date for each orbital position in the diagram below. Use the following format for the date (mm/dd)

39. Orbital Position A:
      Date:

40. Orbital Position C:
      Date:

Solstice and Equinox diagram

Complete the following table of data for the Vernal Equinox.
Report Theta to the nearest tenth of a degree (one decimal place),
Ground Area to the nearest hundredth (two decimal places) and
Energry Intensity to the nearest whole number.

Problem # Latitude Theta, θ a Ground Area, m2 Energy Intensity, watts/m2   
  90° 1 m2 1 m2 1369 watts/m2
41 35° N ° 1 m2 m2 watts/m2
42 62° N ° 1 m2 m2 watts/m2

Complete the following table of data for the Winter Solstice.
Report Theta to the nearest tenth of a degree (one decimal place),
Ground Area to the nearest hundredth (two decimal places) and
Energry Intensity to the nearest whole number.

Problem # Latitude Theta, θ a Ground Area, m2 Energy Intensity, watts/m2   
  90° 1 m2 1 m2 1369 watts/m2
43 35° N ° 1 m2 m2 watts/m2
44 62° N ° 1 m2 m2 watts/m2

Temperature

Convert the following temperatures.
Report Problems 45-48 to the nearest degree,
Report Problems 49-50 to the nearest hundredth of a degree (two decimal places),
45. 32° F = °C
46. 50° F = °C
47. 0° C = °F
48. 20° C = °F
49. 200 K = °C
50. 780 K = °F

Using the data provided in your lab manual, calculate the annual temperature range for each location. The annual temperature range is the difference between the lowest and highest temperature.
Report to the nearest hundredth of a degree (two decimal places).
51. Serov, Russia: °C
52. Nunivak Island, Alaska: °C

Calculate the average annual temperature for each location.
Report to the nearest hundredth of a degree (two decimal places).
53. Serov, Russia: °C
54. Nunivak Island, Alaska: °C

Additional Activities

You should be able to complete the following activities.

55. Using your lab manual, examine the temperature curves, annual temperature ranges and average annual temperatures for Serov, Russia and Nunivak Island, Alaska. Describe and explain the differences.

56. Draw an isotherm line for every 5 degrees of Celsius, i.e. 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, etc.

Isotherm map

57. Compare the operation of the thermoscope with the operation of the alcohol thermometer. Describe how the alcohol thermometer works and how it differs from the water-filled thermoscope.

58. Compare the operation of the Galileo thermometer with the operation of the alcohol thermometer. Describe the differences between these two thermometers.

59. Using your lab manual, compare the insolation curve for 60° N Latitude with the Solar Declination graph. Explain the relationship between these two curves.

60. Using the PSS, examine the spectrum emitted by an incandescent light bulb and fluorescent bulb. Describe the spectrum for each.

61. Describe how an incandescent light bulb produces light.

62. Describe how a fluorescent light bulb produces light.