Regional Geography 105
Boundary Types and Territorial Morphology

Boundary Types

1) Antecedent Boundary - a boundary that was created before the present day cultural landscape developed.
2) Fortified Boundary - when a state constructs physical barriers along a boundary to either keep people in or out of their territory.
3) Geometric Boundary - straight or arcuate lines that serve as political boundaries that are unrelated to physical and/or cultural differences.
4) Language Boundary - a boundary that separates different language speakers.
5) Physical Boundary - major physical features such as a deserts, mountain ranges, and/or water bodies that serves as a means of separation.
6) Relict Boundary - a boundary that ceases to exist, however the imprint of the boundary still remains on the cultural landscape.
7) Religious Boundary - a boundary that separates different religions.
8) Subsequent Boundary - a boundary that develops at the same time as the cultural landscape, usually the result of long term processes.
9) Superimposed Boundary - a boundary that has been forced upon the inhabitants of an area to solve a problem and/or conflict.

Territorial Morphology

1) Compact State - the distance from the geographic center of the area to any point on the boundary does not vary greatly. States which are roughly circular, oval or rectangular in shape.
2) Elongated State - a state that is geographically long and narrow, such that the length is 6 times its average width.
3) Enclave - a state that is totally surrounded by another state.
4) Exclave - small portion of land that is separated by land from the main state.
5) Fragmented State - a state that is split into many pieces, separated by land or water.
6) Narrow State - a state that is geographically long and narrow, but not as narrow as an Elongated State.
7) Perforated State - a state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state.
8) Prorupt (Protruded) State - state having a portion of territory that is an elongated extension leading away from the main body of the state.