Regional Geography 105
China


Physiography

Similar latitudes as United States
Similar size as the United States
China - 9,561,000 km2
United States- 9,159,123 km2
Similar climates types - different distribution of the climatic zones
Similar population distribution

Regions of China

Three primary zones within China
China Proper
- Population, culture, and history are concentrated in this region
- characterized by river basins and low elevation highlands
- Agricultural production - rice, wheat, corn cotton, barley, tobacco, tea and sugar cane.

Xinjiang (Shin-jee-AHNG)
- Plateau and Steppe of Mongolia
- Desert basin of Xinjiang
- deserts, high plains and plateaus
- similar to the western portion of the U.S.
- southwestern deserts and high plains of NE, MT, CO and WY

Xizang (Sheedz-AHNG) - Tibet
- dominated by the Tibetan Plateau
- Himalayans - formed as the result of the tectonic collision of India and Asia

Natural Resources

Wood production, agriculture
Mineral Resources - coal, oil (138.3 mil. metric tons - U.S. = 371 mmt), iron ore, crude oil, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, world's largest hydropower potential
Large potential for major natural resource exploitation.

Resource Conservation

Inventory, use and management of resources.
Resource - a source of supply or items which can be utilized. - user dependant
Natural Resources - materials that are found in nature
These materials do not become resources unless they are utilized.

Nonrenewable vs Renewable Resources

Nonrenewable - Resources which are not replaced by natural processes or whose rate of replacement is so slow as to be non-effective.
Renewable - Resources which can be regenerated by nature.
What are some renewable and nonrenewable resources?

Reusable Resources - Recycling

Recycle - to process in order to regain material for human use.
What are some of our reusable resources?
Recycling reduces the dependence on raw natural resources.
Recycling reduces the cost of production
- less refining and processing of raw materials.

Recycling

Pre-Production Recycling:
Post-Production Recycling:

Resource Management

Maintaining a balance between resources, production (use) and capacity (demand).
Over-exploitation
Reducing production
More efficient production

China & Recycling

Abundant natural resources
Huge population - ____________ people (____)
Results in high demand on natural resources.
Much of the country is underdeveloped, but is moving towards developed.
Developed countries consume more natural resources than underdeveloped.

United States' Resource Consumption

4.5 % of world's population

We consume:
___% of all oil produced
___% of all aluminum produced
___% of all copper produced
___% of the world's energy production

The Average American Uses:
Approximately 1100 pounds of raw materials daily!
___ pounds - fossil fuel
___ pounds - minerals
___ pounds - farm products
___ pounds - wood and paper
___ gallons of water - (___ pounds)

Waste: U.S. vs Japan

Of all solid waste material: Where does it go?

U.S. Japan
landfills                                      
incinerated                                      
recycled                                      

Why doesn't the U.S recycle more?

China & Recycling

What will happen when China becomes a fully developed nation?
How much will they use, waste, conserve, recycle?
Will China over-exploit or recycle and conserve?

"China Is Eternal"

Cultural Attitude
4000 years of culture and tradition
Considered to be the world's oldest continuous national culture and civilization

Isolation

Remote location from other cultural hearths
Physical barriers: mountains, deserts
Cultural Isolation
Political Isolation
Philosophical Isolation

Philosophy

2000 years of common philosophy
Teachings of Confucius and Lao Tse
Confucianism
- collection of teachings on ethical and social problems
- foundation for Chinese government, law, literature, religion, morality, education and family.
It is not a religion; it is a philosophy

Confucius Analects

1:1 "Is it not a pleasure to learn and to repeat or practice from time to time what has been learned."
2:11 "A man who reviews the old so as to find out the new is qualified to teach others."
2:3 "Lead the people with government measures and regulate them by law and punishment, and they will avoid wrongdoing but will have no sense of honor and shame. Lead them with virtue and regulate them by rules of propriety, and they will have a sense of shame and moreover, set themselves right."

Confucian Golden Rule

6:28 "A man of humanity, wishing to establish his own character, also establishes the character of others, and wishing to be prominent himself, also helps others to be prominent. To be able to judge others by what is near to ourselves may be called the method of realizing humanity."

Philosophy

Taoism - by non-action and keeping away from human striving, it is possible to live in harmony with the principles which underlie and govern the universe.
Tao cannot be comprehended by reason and knowledge, but only by inward quiet.
Began as a philosophy but has evolved into a religion.

Maoism

Mao Zedong - Communist Party Chairman, never claimed to be a philosopher.
His ideas have determined the direction of Chinese philosophy since 1949.
Stated that Chinese philosophy should be practical, scientific, democratic and popular.

"New democratic culture is scientific. A splendid ancient culture was created during the long period of China's feudal society. To clarify the process of development of this ancient culture, to throw away its feudal dross, and to absorb its democratic essence is a necessary condition for the development of our new national culture and for the increase of our national self-confidence."

Communist Revolution in China

October 1, 1949 - Mao declares the birth of the People's Republic of China
Massive reform and reconstruction programs instigated.
Land was initially divided amongst landless villagers
Later it was pooled together under a program of Collectivization - formation of Collectives
Collectives were then merged into large communes - Communization
Private property ownership is eliminated.
Everything is owned by the commune.
Totalitarianism - the State owns everything.
The commune was to become everything - the household/family nothing.
Confucianism vs. Maoism - strong family support vs. communal support
Initial commune system - agriculture
Industry was later communized.
Resentment to communist system
Mao dies in 1976
Mao favored self-reliance
Recent leaders have opened trade ties with foreign investors

Foreign Investment

Special Economic Zones
Open Cities
Open Coastal Areas
Areas where foreign investors are offered incentives, low taxes and permission to import and export goods.
Benefits to China of this economic system:
1) Concentrates foreign investors in coastal areas.
2) China is able to export to foreign markets.
3) Restricts and controls foreign access and influence in the core of China
Economic Buffering.

Population Growth

____________ billion people live in China
Any increase adds millions to the population
Mao opposed any policy which limited population growth - "numbers mean strength"
After Mao, strict population control programs
Population growth declined from 3% to 0.6%
1 family - 1 child
3% of ____________ billion is ____________
0.5% of ____________ billion is ____________
Negative aspects of program:
1.
2.
3.
4.