Regional Geography 105
Indicators of Development and Underdevelopment


Unequal Development

In Underdeveloped Countries
2.6 billion people without access to basic sanitation (2010 WHO data)
64 million people living with HIV/AIDS (2006)
777 million illiterate adults (2011 Summer Inst. of Linguistics)
68 million children out of school at the primary and secondary levels (2010 UNESCO data)
3.4 billion people living on less than $2 a day (2005 PRB)
6.5 million children under 5 dying annually from preventable causes (more than 17,800 per day) (2011 WHO data)

Unequal Development

In Developed Countries
16 million illiterate adults (2011 Summer Inst. of Linguistics)
130 million people in income poverty (2005)
U.S. - 37 million people living in poverty (2007)
8 million undernourished people (2005)
6 million people living with HIV/AIDS (2006)

Developed vs. Underdeveloped Regions

Terms that describe economic, social and institutional growth of national states within a realm or region:
Developed vs. Underdeveloped
Developed vs. Developing
More Developed vs. Less Developed
Industrialized vs. Nonindustrialized
Realms contain areas that are developed and underdeveloped or developing.

Third World?

Older development terms that are no longer used in development studies, but still heard in the media and common usage.
First World:
Second World:
Third World:
Fourth World:

U.N. Human Development

Human development is a process of enlarging people's choices.
Enlarging people's choices is achieved by expanding human capabilities and functions.
The three essential capabilities for human development are:

Human Development Index

HDI - A composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development.
Calculated using the following statistics:

Life Expectancy At Birth

The number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of age-specific mortality rates at the time of birth were to stay the same throughout the child's life.

Mean Years of Schooling

Average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older in their lifetime.

Expected Years of Schooling

The number of years of schooling that a child of school entrance age is expected to spend at school and university in their lifetime.

Gross National Income

The average income for all individuals in the country, regardless of income source.

Human Development Index

Statistics and Rankings

World Map of HDI 2006
World Map of HDI 2010

200 Countries, 200 Years, 4 Minutes - a Gapminder Video

Other Development Indicators

Occupational structure of the labor force
Productivity per worker
Consumption of energy per person
Communications facilities per person
Transportation facilities per person
Consumption of manufactured metals per person
Rates - caloric intake, death, birth etc.

Symptoms of Underdevelopment

1) Moderate to high death rate
2) Low life expectancy at birth
3) Large percent of population is 15 yrs. or younger
4) Low nutrition, poor diet
5) High disease rate, poor health care
6) Poor sanitation
7) Inadequate education
8) Poor infrastructure
9) Poor farming techniques/equipment
10) Low crop yield
11) Subsistence living
12) Men work less than women
13) Over-crowded urban centers
14) High unemployment
15) Low per capital income